Nicholas Dreystadt, Cadillacs & African-Americans

So. I have always vaguely wondered about the rather unique love-affair between African-Americans and the Cadillac. I stumbled across this story of Nicholas Dreystadt in a book called The Chrome Colossus by Ed Cray, while doing some research for my dissertation…

It is 1932, and GM is actually at the point of abandoning the Cadillac forever…what was on the cutting board? This beauty of an automobile:

Nicholas Dreystadt, head of the Cadillac division, breaks into the meeting

As Cadillac service manager, Dreystadt had earlier discovered that the car was very popular with the small black bourgeoisie of successful entertainers, doctors and ghetto businessmen. A surprising number brought Cadillacs in for service–surprising because corporate policy was not to sell Cadillacs to blacks at all; the Cadillac was reserved for the white prestige market. “But the wealthy Negro,” business critic Peter F. Drucker recalled, “wanted a Cadillac so badly that he paid a substantial premium to a white man to front for him in buying one. Dreystadt had investigated this unexpected phenomenon and found that a Cadillac was the only success symbol the affluent black could buy; he had no access to good housing, to luxury resorts, or to any other of the outward signs of worldly success.”

Overwhelmed by Dreystadt’s audacity and bemused by his proposal, the committee gave him eighteen months in which to develop the Negro market. By the end of 1934, Derystadt had the Cadillac division breaking even, and by 1940 had multplied sales tenfold… (Cray 279)

It is one side of the story to be sure, a comfortable retelling of an atrocious racism prevalent in this most American of institutions. And all of America. There must be so much more to it of course, but what a fascinating glimpse from a very corporate angle. Turned around, in spite of the fury it inspires, it seems to say that African-Americans saved the Cadillac from extinction. What did they save again?

God damn. I know it’s conspicuous consumption, but I continue utterly smitten with the craftsmanship and beauty of something such as this.

But there is more. I continue reading and 50 pages later I find this story from the WWII years:

Dreystadt had accepted a contract to produce delicate aircraft gyroscopes. despite mutterings on the fourteenth floor that the job was a killer and needed skilled hands unavailable. The dissent turned to outrage when Dreystadt and his personnel manager, Jim Roche, hired 2,000 overage black prostitutes from Paradise Valley–uneducated, untrained, but willing workers. Dreystadt hired the madams too, blithely explaining, “They know how to manage the women.”

Dreystadt himself machined a dozen gyroscopes, then produced a training film detailing the step-by-step assembly process. Within weeks the women were surpassing quotas, and the outrage turned to chagrin on West Grand Boulevard. Jokes about Cadillac’s “red-light district” angered Dreystadt. “These women are my fellow workers, and yours,” he insisted. “They do a good job and respect their work. Whatever their past, they are entitled to the same respect as any one of our associates.”

Dreystadt knew he would have to replace these women at war’s end–returning veterans had job preference, and the United Auto Workers, heavily white male with a southern-states orientation, wanted the women out of the plant. “Nigger-lover” and “whore-monger” Dreystadt fought to keep some, pleading, “For the first time in their lives, these poor wretches are paid decently, work in decent conditions, and have some rights. And for the first time they have some dignity and self-respect. It’s our duty to save them from being again rejected and despised.” The union stood adamant.

When the women were laid off, a number committed suicide  rather than return to the streets. Nick Dreystadt grieved, “God forgive me. I have failed these poor souls.” (Cray 318-319)

Again, only one side and a highly problematic retelling of what is truly a remarkable story by any measure. And again, racism in bucketfuls. But who was this Nick Dreystadt really? And where are the other sides of this story to be found? I shall be looking, no fear…


0 thoughts on “Nicholas Dreystadt, Cadillacs & African-Americans”

  1. Nicholas was my grandfather! He was a great man from what my Dad told me and some of your facts are dead on. Good read

  2. N that’s Y NOT 1 of my 2 children R ALLOWED 2 buy a cadillac. I told them of the the stories I hv researched. Not on my watch!
    Still black n proud w/o a caddy

  3. I think these are great stories on diversity and the case for multicultural marketing. Every smart company tries to find the selling angle for the demographics they are trying to reach. The auto industry, (apparently learning historical lessons from Cadillac), is the industry that does it best.

  4. Dr. Anna Chandler, my Ethnic Studies instructor when I attended Wichita State University shared this information with me. Great story! As the owner of a 1996 Cadillac STS (Seville Touring Sedan), I would like to share some history about with this vehicle because it was orginally purchased by Hall of Fame Detroit Lions running back, Barry Sanders. Sanders presented the vehcle as a gift to his father Williams Sanders in 1996. Before William Sanders death in (2011), I became owner of the vehicle through the good grace and friendship of Mr. Sanders in in 2007. Great vehicle!

  5. I am a 3 time Cadillac owner and a black woman. I am going to keep buying them I am glad to have read this story!

  6. The undeniable and often distasteful realities of history will inevitably leach to the surface like lipstick through new paint. As a white man who is far removed from the American black experience, I have trouble getting my head around the still very real ugly specter of racism. The notion of a society that attempts to rectify the damage caused by the inexcusable actions of those that came before us by envisioning some type of new mind set that is color blind is even more disturbing. People of color will always be people of color just as those of us with brown eyes will always have brown eyes. I will never ignore the color of another’s skin because that is who that person is and any attempt to neutralize an obvious fact is taking us a step backward from being an enlightened people. The African American/Cadillac connection is a part of history that is encouraging and important to the cultural heritage of all citizens of this country. Tell the story loudly and to those that find it hard to hear I would suggest they look for ways to reconcile the past as best they can and focus on a future where race is just another aspect of our genetic background and nothing more.

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